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Agricultural sprayers: know the history of the machine and its functions



What are agricultural sprayers?

Agricultural sprayers are machines or equipment capable of distributing liquids in small particles. Spraying can occur by land or air, depending on the extent of activities. These machines and equipment are applied to ensure the correct dispersion of agrochemicals, nutrients and fertilizers in world agriculture.

Due to the importance in pest control and agronomic development, they are indispensable technologies in the current field to maintain productivity.

History of agricultural spraying

Agricultural spraying has been around since the first great civilizations. In Ancient Rome, smoke from burning sulfur was already used as a way to control aphids in wheat and salt plantations to control weeds. 

In the early 19th century, Chinese used arsenic diluted in water to control insects. 

It was known since that time that plant-derived products such as rotenone and pyrethrin controlled the presence of insects in crops. 

In 1865, Paris Green, a mixture of arsenic and copper, began to be used to control Colorado potato beetle populations. And in 1882 it was discovered that a mixture of copper sulfate and lime, called a Bordeaux mixture, was effective against the disease in vines called downy mildew, a fungal infection in plants.

As early as 1890, a mercury-containing powder began to be used for seed treatment, and 25 years later, a liquid formula was developed to control seed fungal pests.

At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the first herbicides began to appear, but the big leap in the area came in the 40s, with the rediscovery of DDT and organochlorines.

One way of understanding pest control divides chemical knowledge into three eras:

  1. Period before 1867, when odorous and irritating products such as excrement, ash, sulfur, rotenone, pyrethrum, nicotine, animal oils and petrochemicals were applied;
  2. Period between 1867 and 1939, marked by the discovery of the Bordeaux mixture and other copper formulas (with the presence of copper);
  3. Period from 1939, with the arrival of organosynthetics.

These three eras mark not only chemical technology, but also herbicide application and pest control strategies. 

Until 1868, plants needed to be rubbed or washed with cloths or brushes dipped in the mixture. Watering cans were also applied to increase application speed and uniform distribution.

Also in this period there was the practice known as benzedura, in which dusters and brooms soaked in liquids threw them over the plants.

The spurt in the development of engineering equipment for agricultural spraying begins in the second period, especially in the late 19th century. 

The growth of large-scale monoculture practices around the world favored the emergence of new application technologies due to the development race driven by major pests in plantations.

The three main ones were: downy mildew on European vines, potato beetle invasion in the US and potato scab in England and Ireland. 

The potato scab decimated the potato crop on the island of Ireland and led the region to a state of hunger and misery, reaching approximately 500,000 deaths directly caused by the problem and migration of almost a million people to other countries.

After these advances, in 1939, the explosion of growth in engineering and chemistry for agriculture, driven by the two World Wars and the technological expansion of the period, generated increasingly modern and efficient agricultural machines.

Challenges in agricultural spraying

Agricultural tractor sprayers emerged with the need for a more efficient control of the disposal of agrochemicals, as crop areas grow non-stop and pests follow the same pace in a biological race. 

As a result, it became necessary to increase the quality and precision of the applications, wasting less agrochemicals in the air or in the soil at the time of spraying. 

The process can be historically divided into 5 steps:

  1. Street count spray marking depending on boom width and crop spacing;
  2. Marking by flags placed at the beginning and at the end of the streets to demarcate the spray strip, work in a straight line similar to the first model, but on a larger scale;
  3. Ground marking carried out by 2 tractors and a steel cable with a length equal to the width of the bar applied to the rear of the first tractor with the front of the second tractor. Markings in parallel with a scarifier that scratches the ground;
  4. Light bar system with georeferenced equipment equipped with satellites and intelligent on-board computers capable of mapping the sprayed area;
  5. Autonomous system in which the machine operates alone without the need for a light bar and manual operator control. 

Today, this last system generates high precision in the application, with computers passing readings on humidity, pressure, temperature, dosage and condition of the soil. 

Types of agricultural sprayers

Agricultural sprayers can be categorized in several ways. The first of them refers to the activation, in which they are divided into: 

  • manuals: normally used for small areas and punctual actions; 
  • electrical: mechanical, with battery, dependent on energy sources for recharging;
  • fuel-powered: powered by burning fossil fuels. 

But there is still a classification by equipment configuration and activation mode. See below how they work.

Costal sprayer

Reservoir with handles, carried on the back like a backpack. It can have manual, electric or fuel activation. It depends on an operator to handle it all the time. 

Pistol Sprayer

They work with compressed air and have manual or electric activation. For manual operation, they are recommended only in vegetable gardens, orchards and small gardens.

Boom Sprayer

Bar with multiple spray nozzles normally installed on tractors. They can cover large areas in small time intervals. 

Useful for farmers facing any production volume, but typically applied to annual crops such as soybeans, corn, wheat, potatoes and horticulture in general.

Atomizing Sprayers

Machine that sprays through an air current at high speed over the plantation. Capable of reaching great distances. Usually used in perennial crops like coffee and oranges.

Agricultural sprayer parts and accessories

Sprayers (whether manual or motorized) usually have:

  • tank/reservoir for the mixture (diluted mixture of water and agrochemical component);
  • bomba;
  • agitator;
  • filter;
  • pressure regulator;
  • manometer;
  • drive set;
  • hose;
  • spray nozzle;
  • triggering device (bar or gun).

Mechanized models may have applied volume meters, GPS, computer remote control systems, thermal sensors, barometers, etc.

How to choose agricultural sprayers?

Sprayers should be chosen based on two factors: type of crop and area sprayed. 

As stated earlier, annual crops are usually served by boom sprayers coupled to tractors. While perennial crops use atomizing sprays. 

In addition, the total area calculation determines the number of machines needed (most common for atomizers, with capacity without great variation) and the maximum capacity in liters of each of them (bar sprayers can go from 400 to 4500 liters on average) . 

Maintenance of agricultural sprayers

Due to the high flow of liquids and the chemical action of many of them, agricultural sprayers depend on good maintenance to have an adequate lifespan and not cause damage or problems. Most sprayers have specialist agricultural machinery So Clean insurance . Below, we list the main maintenance activities required on the machines.


Agrochemical residues in sprayers contaminate people or animals. In addition, they mix with the new products inserted in the tanks and impair the performance and general effect.

Cleaning, therefore, becomes essential to ensure the health of workers in the field, the people living around them and nature. Therefore, it must be done at the end of every working day or at the time of product change if they occur on the same day. 

All handling when cleaning the sprayers must be carried out with the correct PPE, and it is necessary to use, in addition to water, special detergents, degreasers and other products recommended by the manufacturers of agrochemicals and fertilizers.

Parts including triggers, filters and nozzles need to be removed and immersed in water repeatedly to ensure thorough cleaning. 

Adjustment and calibration

Adjustment and calibration help correct dispersion problems and correct application can be done on different parts of the sprayer, including the nozzle. Calibration helps to verify the reliability of the process and should be done whenever consumption is above 15% of the average.

Replacement of nozzles and parts

Sprayers, like all agricultural machinery and equipment, have periodic maintenance and overhaul routines. Therefore, the parts must be replaced following the parameters recommended by the manufacturers. 

Nozzles can generate huge losses with dispersion above the planned, and when they reach deviations of 10% above the nominal flow, they need to be replaced.

Agricultural spray parameters

There are 8 fundamental parameters to perform and evaluate an agricultural spraying correctly:

  1. Dose : concentration of the active ingredient to obtain control of the target population. It can be calculated in grams/hectare or liters/hectare. The ideal value is calculated by an agronomist or forestry engineer;
  2. Application volume : Measures the amount of spray applied per unit area, affected by target, nozzle, weather conditions, plant and product type;
  3. Coverage : Amount of droplets deposited on the target in the spray, determined by product, droplet size and other factors such as plant architecture, leaf density and more;
  4. Droplet Size : Typically measured in micrometers (microns) for the diameter of the sprayed droplet. This parameter is defined as a function of the product’s mode of action (systemic or contact), climatic conditions and target situation (closed or open plantation). Also, droplet size affects nozzle choice;
  5. Pressure : Used to identify flow rate and droplet size, can be read on sprayer manometer;
  6. Wind, temperature and relative humidity : Sprays with small drops cannot occur in winds greater than 10 km/h, and activities are not recommended in temperatures below 30°C with relative humidity above 55%. If these conditions are not met, other parameters are changed to facilitate the activity;
  7. Drift : Movement of product through the air away from the target during spraying. It is, in short, the waste of product that does not reach the target. It can be influenced by wind, temperature, humidity and droplet size;
  8. Nozzle Type : Also known as spray tips. Important variable as it affects other factors.

Necessary care while spraying

Spraying is today a fundamental step in modern agriculture. However, it must be done in the right way to generate the desired results and not negatively affect people’s lives and health. 

Therefore, to be done correctly, it is necessary that quality products and machines are purchased, that the use of PPE is supervised, that maintenance and cleaning are carried out properly and that workers are trained and made aware of the importance of care. handling products, whether agrochemicals or fertilizers.

In addition, the application of the products must be done at the right times, using quality water to form the solution, respecting the climatic conditions to adapt the spraying process.

And to preserve nature and the lives around, waste must be disposed of according to regulations and good environmental practices, with the concentration of agrochemicals in appropriate quantities.

Did you like this article and want to know more about agricultural machinery and safety processes in different industries? Access our blog.

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Importance of Quality Custom Candle Boxes Packaging



Candle packaging requires careful thought and design. It must convey a message about the quality of the product and capture the attention of the target market. The designer should have an understanding of how the buying process works. Packaging is more than a wrapper, it changes the way the buyer views a product, and can influence the amount of money they’re willing to spend on it.

Benefits of Using Candle Packaging Boxes

Quality-oriented candle packaging boxes are a great way to present your candles in a more appealing manner. They can be purchased in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and customization options. The designs and styles are both unique and captivating. Candles are often made with essential oils, and their packaging can showcase their scent.

In addition to preserving the scent, these boxes are also environmentally friendly. They are biodegradable and recyclable. The material used for these boxes can be customized to include a brand logo and tagline. The best part is that they are recyclable, so your customers won’t have to worry about disposing of them.

Quality-oriented candle packaging boxes come in a wide variety of materials. Plastic, for example, is recyclable and can be printed on. Because of this, they are eco-friendly and can enhance the image of your products.

Effect of candle Packaging boxes in Helping a Bran

When it comes to packaging your candles, the quality of your box is just as important as the quality of the candles themselves. While it may be tempting to buy a cheap, flimsy box, you should remember that good packaging is not cheap, and you don’t have to sacrifice quality to save money. Choosing a quality-oriented box will not only help you save money, but it will also make your product more reliable.

Candle packaging boxes are available in a wide range of styles, shapes, and materials. Candle companies are constantly working to develop innovative and attractive boxes for their products. Custom-designed boxes can help attract customers, while providing the packaging material with the strength it needs to stand up to shipping and handling.

How to choose the best custom gift boxes

There are a variety of different factors to consider when choosing custom candle boxes. First, you need to choose the appropriate material. Cardstock is best for small light candles, while corrugated cardboard is best for larger glass candles. Metallic paperboard is another great choice for custom candle boxes, as it can be printed in partial or full colors. Custom candle boxes can also be decorated with cutouts to make them more appealing. These features will allow customers to experience the product right from the packaging.

One of the most important aspects of packaging is how it appeals to the target audience. It should be eye-catching, so that the product’s quality and value are highlighted. At the same time, it should be durable to prevent melting of the candles inside.

Candle Packaging Ideas

Quality-oriented candle box packaging ideas are important in enhancing the brand value of a candle. In order to make a good impression on consumers, packaging should contain a clear message and a striking design. Consumers can be swayed by information on the packaging, including the brand name, colors, and illustrations.

candle box

A good candle box will convey the brand identity, creating a lasting impression on customers and increasing sales. Candle manufacturers invest a lot of time and money into their products and they want them to reach their customers safely. Unfortunately, they also have to deal with less enjoyable aspects of their business, including handling, shipping, and storage. Proper packaging will ensure that the product reaches its destination intact.

Candle packaging ideas are often custom-made to suit the brand identity of a business. A custom-made box can be an excellent way to outmaneuver your competition, while improving the brand image of a business.


Customized candle packaging is one of the best ways to promote your brand. Candle companies are in a constant rush to come up with creative packaging boxes that will attract consumers. They need to make sure their box designs are both attractive and professional. This will help them differentiate themselves from other companies. Customized candle packaging is a great way to gain an edge over your competitors and improve the brand image.

When choosing the right packaging for your candles, the placement of the logo is vital. While many organizations tend to overlook this detail, a unique business logo can make your candle box packaging look more attractive. Having an eye-catching logo is an effective way to boost the overall look of the box and make your organization’s image flourish.

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How to Start a House Cleaning Business on a Tight Budget



If you use Emotion and Love to drive your sales and your business, you will create Loyalty beyond Reason. And I promise you, you will build relationships and enjoy a business that exceeds beyond your wildest expectations”

First of all, before you decide to start your cleaning business, make sure this kind of work is right for you. You will need to be in good physical condition. Cleaning is very hard strenuous work. You will need to have good customer relation skills. You will need to have basic office skills and some accounting skills.

If you are planning on leaving your full time position to start a cleaning business

Make sure you have at least six months of savings. Or keep your full time job and start out part time.

Research all the aspects of the cleaning service business. From customer service to advertising, taxes, employees, insurance and bonding, what to charge and how to clean a home professionally. Cleaning your own home and cleaning professionally is totally different. Learning how to clean professionally takes a lot of time. When a client pays for your services they expect to come home and find their home spotless.

Getting those first clients takes time, persistence and patience. You will not get a hundred clients overnight.

Obtaining Those First Clients the hardest part of starting your own Rengøring Erhverv service is obtaining those first clients. Most clients want to know how long you have been in business and want references. The best thing to do is let clients know that, yes, you are new to the business but that you have thoroughly researched all aspects of the cleaning business and assure them that you know what you are doing and that you are quite capable of cleaning their home to their specifications. Be confident. I can’t stress this enough. Clients love to see confidence. It relieves their worries and lets them know that their home is in good hands.

References: To get a few good references when starting out,

ask some friends or family members if you can clean their home for free or at a discounted rate. The sound of working for free may not be appealing but it will be worth it to get some good testimonials.

When cleaning those first homes, go for quality, not how fast you can clean the home. Cleaning efficiently takes a long time, but you will get to the point where you can do a thorough cleaning in a short time. After cleaning make sure you go back and double check all rooms to make sure you didn’t miss anything. Impress those first clients and word of mouth will spread soon.

Advertising your company image is everything. Before you start advertising, decide what image you want to portray on your advertising material. Your image is very important. Be consistent with all your advertising. If you have a logo be sure to use it on all your advertising materials. I think it is best to have a website developed before you start advertising. When advertising, stick with the same logo and colors.

Advertise in Local Paper: Start by running a text ad in your local newspaper.

Try to come up with an eye catching ad. Do not sell your services on low rates, sell your services on your quality of work and what you can do for the client that other companies don’t. There is a lot of competition in the cleaning service. You have to stand out from the rest.

Magnetic Signs or Lettering for your Vehicle: Having your business name and contact information on your vehicle is a great way to advertise. We use the vinyl lettering. The lettering looks much more professional than the magnetic signs.

Flyers: You can print nice flyers on your home computer, but I would suggest investing in some professional flyers. Hang flyers at Hair Dressers, Laundromats, Restaurants, Bakeries, Grocery Stores, etc. Put flyers on car windows at local groceries stores and businesses. You can even go door to door in neighborhoods you would like to work in. You cannot put them in mailboxes. but you can put them in the front door.

Door Hangers: Door hangers are a great way to get new clients.

 Pick the neighborhood you would like to work in and hang the door hangers on the doors. When people get flyers or ads in their mailbox they usually throw them away with the junk mail. But if there is a door hanger on the door they will take the time to look at it.

Business Cards: Start passing out your business cards to friends and family members. You can also ask your local businesses if you can leave some cards on their counters.

Referral Program: A great way to obtain new clients is through a referral program. Offer existing clients a discount when they refer a friend. You can give your existing clients a discount when the friend uses your services three times.

Website: These days’ people live very busy lives so they use the convenience of the internet to shop for the services they need. A lot of working women will shop for services while at work.

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How to Customize Reports in QuickBooks for Mac?




Are you searching for the procedure to customize your Reports? QuickBooks for Mac gives you the leverage of achieving this task without any vehement attempt and with the least hassle. The process to customize reports in QuickBooks for Mac is relatively brief and easy and involves adherence to a specific set of steps, which shall be revealed as you proceed with this article.

For additional support, user can always feel free to communicate with us and get their respective queries and doubts resolved by our certified experts. We have successfully catered to clients across the globe and helped them get rid of the issues faced by them while working in QuickBooks Desktop or QuickBooks Online.

Easy steps to customize reports in QuickBooks for Mac

Follow the steps given below to get your reports customized in QuickBooks:

  • To begin with, the user is required to launch QuickBooks for Mac and then make a report.
  • After that, pick the Customize option in the Report Window.
  • Within this window, the user needs to select the tab that he/she wants to get customized.

How to get the report option customized?

  • To start off, launch the QuickBooks software on Mac.
  • After that, open Preferences, and then proceed ahead to reports.
  • Finally, opt for the option for displaying customized reports automatically.

Filtering data in QuickBooks for Mac

The process of filtering the report is essential as it makes sure that any unwanted data is flushed off from your report. The method of data filtering in QuickBooks for Mac is as follows:

  • The first step the user should follow is to opt for the Customize option.
  • After that, move to the Filters option.
  • The next step involves opting for the appropriate filter.
  • The user can make use of the Search box to scroll past filters for easy convenience.

What are the different types of filters for reports?

A wide range of report filters are offered in QuickBooks for Mac. These are listed as follows:

  • Aging: Relates to bills due by some days.
  • Account: This filter constraints the report for only specific accounts.
  • Amount: filter specific transactions on the basis of some amount.
  • Class: Checking for specific transactions that relate to assorted classes.
  • Billing status: Used to trace and report corresponding to activities or items that are unbilled.
  • Customer type: based on the type of customer.
  • Due date: It shows only those bills that are due in specific period in time.
  • Item: Filtering the report on the basis of the inventory item.
  • To be printed: Filtering specific transactions on the basis of their printing status.

Apart from these filter types in QuickBooks for Mac, there are several other types as well. Depending on the purpose for which the user wants to filter data in his/her report, they can make use of such filter types.

Procedure for formatting reports in QuickBooks for Mac

The user can format his/her report as per their liking and convenience. Follow the guidelines below so as to format the reports in QuickBooks for Mac.

  • After creating a report, the user must opt for the Format tab.
  • The user can alter the font or color of the report by hitting on the format tab, followed by opting for Font and Color for option. Subsequently, the user is required to opt for the region that he/she wishes to be customized in the report.
  • After opting for the font and color, the next step is to hit on Save.
  • Likewise, users can also change the header, footer, and report alignment. Furthermore, the template of the report can also be formatted by the user. In order to format the template, the user needs to tap on the Format Setup option and then opt for the theme of the report. Subsequently, after customizing the report theme, the user needs to hit on the Save option.

You may also read : Fix QuickBooks error 1723

It is finally time to conclude this brief piece of writing, wherein we tried to apprise you of all the relevant information to customize reports in QuickBooks for Mac. Due to its complexities, QuickBooks users are often blockaded by a wide range of error codes. To counter all the technical issues encountered by users, our team of experts diligently comes up with effective strategies for getting these issues ousted from the QuickBooks accounting software.

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