Why is medication therapy management important?
Medication therapy management (MTM) is a discrete service or combination of services given by health care practitioners, such as pharmacists, to optimize therapeutic results for patients. MTM consists of five essential components: medication therapy review, personal medication record, medication-related action plan, intervention or referral, and documentation and follow-up.
In the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, MTM can encompass a vast array of services, most frequently centered on the following:
- identifying uncontrolled hypertension
- Educating patients about cardiovascular disease and drug regimens
- advising patients on healthy lifestyle and behavior improvements to improve health outcomes
MTM is particularly beneficial for individuals with many chronic illnesses, complex pharmaceutical therapy, expensive prescriptions, and multiple prescribers. Pharmacists can undertake MTM with or without a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). And it is a technique that can be deemed to span both Domain 3 (health care system interventions) and Domain 4 (patient-centered care) of the ICD-10-CM (community-clinical links).
MTM services are focused on comprehensive, individualized patient interactions that leverage the knowledge of the school’s pharmacists in evaluating complex drug regimens. Services encompass:
- Conducting thorough reviews of the patient’s prescription, over-the-counter, nutritional, and herbal supplements
- Educating and counseling patients regarding their drugs – prescription and nonprescription products
- Identifying and resolving adherence issues and promoting the correct drug use
- Monitoring laboratory results and therapeutic response
- cooperatively selecting, initiating, modifying, or providing pharmaceutical therapy with prescribers (e.g., cost-efficacy management; resolving drug therapy problems)
Patients take drugs to improve their health and quality of life, but many are uncertain whether they are receiving the intended benefits. In addition to prescribed and over-the-counter drugs, many patients also take natural and vitamin supplements.
Experts who can assist in managing these pharmaceutical regimens contribute to the patient’s well-being and safety. Employers who provide MTM services enjoy both increased efficiency and cost reductions. They also foster a work climate that promotes the health of all employees. The benefits include:
Increased patient medication adherence and use
Increased proportion of patients achieving treatment objectives (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol)
Reduced drug duplication, adverse effects, and drug-vitamin-supplement interactions
Greater medication cost savings and medical resource cost savings result from more efficient pharmacological therapy.
Proof of Effectiveness
The evidence of effectiveness chart displays the evidence of effectiveness ratings for the Community Pharmacists and Medication Therapy Management plan as rating symbols for each of the six rating categories. The rating icon can reflect one of three possible ratings: well supported/supported, promising/emerging, or unsupported/harmful. The effect, Implementation Guidance, Research Design, Internal Validity, Independent Replication, and External and Ecological Validity are assessed as supported/well supported.
Existing research indicates that pharmacists’ use of MTM is successful. Even though the precise combination of MTM activities tends to vary by context, MTM is effective and has excellent internal and external validity in most investigations. Multiple resources give implementation instructions for MTM, including Medicare Part D.
MTM is an exhaustive framework.
How then is MTM distinct? It exceeds patient counseling connected with the dispensing of a single product and illness education and management. MTM focuses on the individual patient to optimize the patient’s treatment regimen to accomplish the most appropriate therapeutic goals for that patient.
McGivney states that for a pharmacist to comprehend a patient’s experience with a drug regimen. They must engage with the patient regarding expectations and current drug regimen outcomes. To comprehend a patient’s health demands, the pharmacist must collect important patient history. Moreover, if medication therapy difficulties are detected, the pharmacist collaborates with the patient and healthcare providers to develop a solution.
The consultation documentation offers a foundation for follow-up between the patient and pharmacist to determine the outcome of the designed plan and, if necessary, to optimize the therapy further. In addition to facilitating communication among the concerned health care providers and providing justification for the services rendered, the payer requires the pharmacist’s documentation and follow-up to get payment for the service.
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Drug and Alcohol Rehab in Texas
Drug and alcohol addictions can have a significant impact on a person’s life, causing physical, emotional, and mental health problems. Fortunately, Texas has a number of rehabilitation centers that can help people struggling with addiction recover and rebuild their lives. This article discusses what it takes to recover from drug and alcohol rehab in Texas and highlights some of the best drug rehab centers in the state.
What is Drug and Alcohol Rehab?
Drug and alcohol rehabilitation is a treatment program that helps individuals struggling with drug addiction overcome their dependence on drugs or alcohol. Rehabilitation centers typically offer a variety of services, including drug rehabilitation, individual and group therapy, and medication-assisted therapy (MAT). The goals of rehabilitation are to help individuals sober up, develop coping skills to sustain long-term recovery, and improve overall health and well-being.
Types of drug and alcohol rehabilitation
There are several types of drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs:
- Inpatient Rehabilitation – Also called inpatient rehabilitation, inpatient rehabilitation is a type of treatment in which individuals stay in a rehabilitation center for an extended period of time (usually 30 to 90 days). Inpatient rehabilitation provides a structured and supportive environment that allows individuals to focus on their recovery without interruptions.
- Outpatient Rehabilitation – Outpatient rehabilitation allows an individual to receive treatment in their home. Outpatient programs usually involve attending therapy sessions and conferences several times a week. Outpatient rehabilitation is ideal for people with mild to moderate poisoning or who are unable to work or attend school.
- Partial Hospitalization Program (PHP) – PHP is a rehabilitation service that provides intensive care while an individual lives at home. A PHP program typically consists of attending therapy sessions and conferences for a few hours each day, five days a week.
- Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) – An IOP is a rehabilitation service that provides intensive care while allowing an individual to live at home. An IOP plan usually involves attending therapy sessions and conferences several times a week for several hours each day.
Best Drug and Alcohol Rehab Centers in Texas
- La Hacienda Treatment Center – La Hacienda Treatment Center is a residential rehabilitation center located in Hunter, Texas. The center offers a variety of services including drug rehabilitation, individual and group therapy, and MAT. La Hacienda has a highly trained team of addiction specialists who provide individualized treatment for each patient.
- The Right Step – The Right Step is a statewide network of outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation centers. The center offers a range of services including drug rehabilitation, individual and group therapy, and aftercare support. The Right Step has a comprehensive approach to drug addiction treatment that covers physical, emotional and spiritual recovery.
- Burning Tree – Burning Tree is a residential rehabilitation center located in Kaufman, Texas. This center specializes in helping individuals with chronic relapsing problems achieve long-term recovery. Burning Tree offers a highly structured and supportive environment, including individual therapy, group therapy, and 12-step sessions.
- Summer Sky Healing Center – Summer Sky Healing Center is a residential rehabilitation center located in Stephenville, Texas. The center offers a variety of services including drug rehabilitation, individual and group therapy, and aftercare support. Summer Sky has a highly trained team of addiction specialists who provide individualized treatment for each patient.
- Cenikor Foundation – The Cenikor Foundation is a non-profit organization that provides a range of services including inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation, drug rehabilitation and aftercare support. Located in Texas and Louisiana, these centers provide evidence-based treatment that addresses the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of addiction.
In conclusion, drug and alcohol rehabilitation centers in Texas offer a variety of services to help individuals struggling with addiction overcome dependence and achieve long-term recovery. At Texas’ premier rehabilitation centers, individuals can receive personalized treatment and support to rebuild their lives.
The Unexpected Impact of Breast Cancer: Dealing with the Psychological Aftermath
When diagnosed with breast cancer, patients experience a wide range of psychological challenges. During this time, it is important for health care providers to be sensitive and compassionate to the patient’s needs.
Psychologists can help breast cancer survivors overcome the emotional and mental impact of their diagnosis. In addition, they can use their knowledge of mind-body interactions to improve physical recovery.
Depression is a common comorbidity among breast cancer patients, which may result in a decreased quality of life and affect treatment outcomes. It is important to provide proper assessment and treatment for depression at the time of BC diagnosis, during the treatment journey, and monitoring after treatment completion.
Licensed psychologists and other mental health professionals can help women cope with the physical, emotional, and medical changes associated with breast cancer and medical treatments that can be distressing. They can also help women learn to control stress, anxiety, and depression so they are less likely to experience symptoms of these disorders in the future.
Depression is a serious mental illness that can affect a person’s ability to work, sleep, think and feel. It can also cause hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there) and delusions (false beliefs that are not shared by others).
Despite advances in early detection and treatment, breast cancer remains a stressful experience. This stress can cause a number of psychological issues including depression and anxiety.
Anxiety is a common problem that many people experience at some point in their lives. It can be chronic and cause trouble with work, relationships, and daily activities.
Risk factors for anxiety include personality traits, a history of mental health problems, and other medical conditions. These can include heart, lung, or thyroid diseases that can trigger feelings of anxiety.
Life events that can raise your anxiety include trauma, loss, and a severe illness or health condition. Substance abuse can also make you more prone to anxiety.
Anxiety disorders can be treated with medication and psychotherapy. These treatments can help you learn to recognize and change thoughts that are making you anxious. They can also teach you ways to cope with stressful situations. The goal of these treatments is to restore calm so you can feel more in control of your life.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
After a traumatic event, it’s normal to experience stress symptoms for a while. These may include anxiety, irritability and trouble sleeping. However, for some people these symptoms continue longer than a few months and can develop into PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder).
Women are more likely to have PTSD after experiencing trauma like military combat or sexual assault than men. This is because women often have a more intense reaction to certain types of trauma than men.
PTSD is caused by a traumatic event and can happen to anyone, at any age. But it can also be caused by things you do or say after the traumatic event, for example when you think about what happened or if you find it hard to relax.
PTSD is a long-lasting mental health condition that can be treated with talking therapy and medication. Medication such as venlafaxine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can help reduce some of the core symptoms, including nightmares and irritability.
Grief is a common emotional response to loss. It is often experienced after the death of someone, but grief can also be experienced when a person loses their relationship, job, pet, health, way of life or treasured possessions.
People may have a hard time dealing with their feelings, and they often feel confused or overwhelmed. These feelings may last for weeks, months or even years.
Researchers have developed a model of grief that is based on 5 stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. While many people do move through these stages, it is important to remember that everyone’s experiences of grief are different.
Some women who have been diagnosed with cancer feel sad, upset or angry about their condition. It is a natural reaction to the changes that the disease has caused in their lives, and it can be very difficult to manage.
Breastfeeding and Milk Production: Understanding the Relationship and Increasing Supply
Breastfeeding is an incredible experience that offers numerous benefits for both the mother and the baby. Not only does it provide optimal nutrition for infants, but it also promotes bonding and offers health benefits for mothers. However, one of the mothers’ most common concerns is whether they produce enough milk for their babies. This article will explore the relationship between breastfeeding and milk production and provide tips on increasing your milk supply.
Understanding the Relationship between Breastfeeding and Milk Production
Breast milk is produced in response to demand. Therefore, the more a baby feeds, the more milk the mother produces. This is because the baby’s suckling stimulates the release of prolactin, a hormone that signals the body to produce more milk. Additionally, the more milk removed from the breast, the more the body produces. This means that frequent and effective feedings are crucial for maintaining milk production.
Factors That Affect Milk Production
While demand is the primary factor influencing milk production, other factors can also affect it. These include:
A poor latch can make it difficult for the baby to extract milk effectively from the breast, which can lead to decreased milk production. It can also cause nipple pain and discomfort for the mother. To ensure a proper latch, make sure your baby’s mouth is wide open, their lips are flanged outwards, and their chin is pressed into the breast.
Infrequent feedings signal the body that less milk is needed, decreasing milk production. In the early weeks, newborns may need to feed as often as 8-12 times per day, and as they grow, the frequency may decrease to 6-8 times per day.
Supplementation with Formula
Supplementing with formula can reduce the demand for breast milk, which can result in decreased milk production. If supplementation is necessary, it’s important to work with a healthcare professional to develop a plan that supports both breastfeeding and the baby’s nutritional needs.
Dehydration can affect milk production, as breast milk is mostly made up of water. To ensure adequate hydration, drink water and other fluids throughout the day, and try to limit your caffeine and alcohol intake.
Stress can interfere with the release of hormones that are involved in milk production. Therefore, taking care of yourself and managing stress through self-care, relaxation techniques, and seeking support when needed is important.
Tips for Increasing Milk Production
Breastfeed on Demand
Breastfeeding on demand, or whenever your baby shows signs of hunger, can help increase milk production. Trust your baby’s cues and feed them whenever they need to.
Switch Sides during Feedings
Switching sides during feedings can help ensure that both breasts are being stimulated and producing milk. It can also help prevent sore nipples and clogged milk ducts. Aim to switch sides every 10-15 minutes during each feeding.
Massage Your Breasts
Gently massaging your breasts before and during feedings can help stimulate milk production. For example, use your fingers to massage in a circular motion toward the nipple. You can also use a warm compress or shower before feedings to help increase blood flow to the breasts.
Breastfeeding can be challenging, especially in the early weeks. Seek support from a lactation consultant, a breastfeeding support group, or a trusted friend or family member with breastfeeding experience. They can offer tips and encouragement to help you through any challenges.
Stress can negatively affect milk production, so stay calm and relaxed while breastfeeding. Take deep breaths and focus on your baby’s cues and the bond you
are forming through breastfeeding. Remember that breastfeeding is a learning experience for you and your baby, and establishing a good milk supply takes time and practice.
Galactagogues are substances that are believed to help increase milk production. Some examples include fenugreek, blessed thistle, and fennel. However, it’s important to seek help from a healthcare professional before taking supplements or herbal remedies, as they may not be safe or effective for everyone.
Pumping can help increase milk production by providing additional stimulation to the breasts. It can also help you build up a supply of breast milk for times when you’re unable to breastfeed directly. Aim to pump after feedings, and gradually increase the length of your pumping sessions over time.
Take Care of Yourself
Taking care of yourself is crucial for maintaining a good milk supply. Ensure you eat a well-balanced diet, get enough rest, and stay hydrated. In addition, consider taking a prenatal vitamin or a supplement that contains iron and other nutrients that support milk production.
Breastfeeding is a beautiful and natural process providing numerous benefits for mothers and babies. While concerns about milk supply are common, it’s important to remember that milk production is a dynamic process influenced by many factors. Following these tips and seeking support can increase your milk supply and help you enjoy a positive and fulfilling breastfeeding experience.
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